Cavernous sinus contents


TOM are lateral wall components, in order from superior to inferior.

CA are the components within the sinus, from medial to lateral. CA ends at the level of T from O TOM.

  • Occulomotor nerve (III)
  • Trochlear nerve (IV)
  • Ophthalmic nerve (V1)
  • Maxillary nerve (V2)
  • Carotid artery
  • Abducent nerve (VI)
  • T: When written, connects to the T of OTOM.

Scalp layers


From superficial to deep:

  • Skin
  • Connective tissue
  • Aponeurosis
  • Loose areolar tissue
  • Pericranium

Bell’s palsy: symptoms

BELL’S Palsy:

  • Blink reflex abnormal
  • Earache
  • Lacrimation [deficient, excess]
  • Loss of taste
  • Sudden onset
  • Palsy of VII nerve muscles

All symptoms are unilateral.

Horner’s syndrome components


  • Sunken eyeballs/ Symphathetic plexus (cervical) affected
  • Ptosis
  • Anhydrosis
  • Miosis

Horner’s syndrome components


  • Horner’s is:
  • Ptosis
  • Anhidrosis
  • Miosis

Horner’s syndrome: components

  • PAM:
  • Ptosis
  • Anhydrosis
  • Miosis

Nasal cavity components

Never Call MNeedle Nose!”:

  • Nares [external]
  • Conchae
  • Meatuses
  • Nares [internal]
  • Nasopharynx

Note: Mnemonic sentence is nasally-related.


The three types

PPL (people) have tonsils”:

  • Pharyngeal
  • Palatine
  • Lingual

Thyroid: isthmus location

  • “Rings 2,3,4 make the isthmus floor“:
  • Isthmus overlies tracheal rings 2,3,4

Thyroids: relative sizes

  • Thyroid looks like a bra.
  • Breasts are bigger in women, so thyroid bigger in women.
  • Pregnant women have biggest breasts of all, so they have the biggest thyroids.

Voicebox: names of parts in sagittal cross-section

“There’s 3 V‘s in your Voicebox”:

  • Vestibular fold
  • Ventricle
  • Vocal fold

Note: Vestibular and Vocal cord also known as false and true cords respectively.

 You can suggest more mnemonics …

Warm regards,

Dr. Indrajit Rana


2 responses to “General

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