Vitelline duct: closure time

VItelline duct normally closes around week VI of intrauterine life.

Potter syndrome: features


  • Pulmonary hypoplasia
  • Oligohydrominios
  • Twisted skin (wrinkly skin)
  • Twisted face (Potter facies)
  • Extremities defects
  • Renal agenesis (bilateral)


Placenta-crossing substances

WANT My Hot Dog”

  • Wastes
  • Antibodies
  • Nutrients
  • Teratogens
  • Microorganisms
  • Hormones/ HIV
  • Drugs


Cranial and spinal neural crest: major derivatives


  • Glial cells (of peripheral ganglia)
  • Arachnoid (and pia)
  • Melanocytes
  • Enteric ganglia
  • Schwann cells


Mesoderm components


  • Mesothelium (peritoneal, pleural, pericardial)/ Muscle (striated, smooth, cardiac)
  • Embryologic Spleen/ Soft tissue/ Serous linings/ Sarcoma/ Somite
  • Osseous tissue/ Outer layer of suprarenal gland (cortex)/ Ovaries
  • Dura/ Ducts of genitalia
  • Endothelium
  • Renal Microglia
  • Mesenchyme/ Male gonad


Vasculogenesis vs. angiogenesis

“Vascu is new. Angi is pre“: Vasculogenesis is new vessels developing in situ from existing mesenchyme. Angiogenesis is vessels develop from sprouting off pre-existing arteries.

Weeks 2, 3, 4 of development: an event for each

  • Week Two: Bilaminar germ disc.
  • Week Three: Trilaminar germ disc.
  • Week Four: Four limbs appear.


Teratogenesis: when it occurs

TEratogenesis is most likely during organogenesis–between the: Third and  Eighth weeks of gestation.


Tetrology of Fallot

“Don’t DROP the baby”

  • Defect (VSD)
  • Right ventricular hypertrophy
  • Overriding aorta
  • Pulmonary stenosis


Lung development phases

Every Premature Child Takes Air”

  • Embryonic period
  • Pseudoglandular period
  • Canalicular peroid
  • Terminal sac period
  • Alveolar period

Branchial arch giving rise to aorta

Aor– from Four“: Aorta is from fourth arch.


Neuroectoderm derivatives

Neuroectoderm gives rise to:

  • Neurons
  • Neuroglia
  • Neurohypophysis
  • piNeurol (pineal) gland


Tetrology of Fallot

IHOP-International House of Pancakes”:

  • Interventricular septal defect
  • Hypotrophy of right ventricle
  • Overriding aorta
  • Pulmonary stenosis


Woffian duct (mesonephric duct) derivatives

Gardener’s SEED:

Female: Gartner’s duct, cyst


  • Seminal vesicles
  • Epididymis
  • Ejaculatory duct
  • Ductus deferens


Foregut derivatives

Little Embryo People Do Like Swallowing, Producing Gas”: Lungs Esophagus Pancreas Duodenum (proximal) Liver Stomach Pancreas Gall bladder


 You can suggest more mnemonics …

Warm regards,

Dr. Indrajit Rana


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